Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Survey

Transcript

Name: _______________________________ Exam I, Physics 117-Spring 2003, Mon. 3/10/2003 Instructor: Dr. S. Liberati General Instructions • • • • • There are a total of five problems in this exam. All problems carry equal weights. Do all the five problems by writing on the exam book (continue to work on the back of each page if you run out of room). Write your name (in capital letters) on every page of the exam. Purely numerical answers will not be accepted. Explain with symbols or words your line of reasoning. Corrected formulae count more than corrected numbers. What you can do • • You may look at your text book in taking the exam Use a calculator What you can’t do • • Speak with nearby colleagues Use any wireless device during the exam Hints to do well • • • • Read carefully the problem before to compute. Before to start you must have clear in your mind what you need to arrive to the answer. Do problems with symbols first (introduce them if you have to). Only put in numbers at the end. Check your answers for dimensional correctness. If you are not absolutely sure about a problem, please write down what you understand so that partial credit can be given. Honor Pledge: Please sign at the end of the statement below confirming that you will abide by the University of Maryland Honor Pledge "I pledge on my honor that I have not given or received any unauthorized assistance on this assignment/examination." Signature:_____________________________ Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 1 of 7 Name: _______________________________ Exercise 1 A large boulder rolls off the edge of a cliff with a horizontal speed of 10 m/s. If the cliff is 45 m high Q-1.1: How long takes the boulder to hit the ground? (Assume g=10 m/s2 and ignore air resistance) If we call h the hight of the cliff then the time the boulder takes to fall down is t= 2h 90 m = =3 s g 10 m /s2 † Q-1.2: How far does it land from the base of the cliff? Let's call d the distance that the boulders travels in the horizontal direction before to touch the ground. Then m d = v horiz t = 10 ⋅ 3 s = 30 m s † Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 2 of 7 Name: _______________________________ Exercise 2 Look at the following picture Q-2.1: Is the system shown above balanced? If not which end will fall? Explain your reasoning. The system is balanced if the torques on each side are equal. But this is not the case, in fact we have : Right : t right = FC ⋅ RC = WeightC ⋅ RC = ( 4 Kg ⋅ g) ⋅ 3 m = 120 Nm Left : t left = t A + t B = Weight A ⋅ RA + Weight B ⋅ RB = (2 Kg ⋅ g) ⋅ 3 m + (2 Kg ⋅ g) ⋅ 2 m = 100 Nm The system is unbalanced. The side with the larger torque will go down, hence it will be the right side. † Q-2.2: How would you balance the system by moving just the heaviest weight C? Explain your reasoning. The system is balanced if the torques on each side are equal. So to have equilibrium changing only the position of the weigth C we need that t right = t left = 100 Nm Hence FC ⋅ RC = 100 Nm fi RC = 100 Nm = 2.5 m (4 Kg ⋅10 m /s2 ) † Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 3 of 7 Name: _______________________________ Exercise 3 The mass of a certain neutron star is MNS≈4·105·MEarth and its radius is RNS≈12.5·10-4·REarth. (Assume gEarth=10 m/s2 and Don’t be scared by big numbers, use scientific notation) Q-3.1: What is the acceleration of gravity on the surface of this condensed, burned-out star? Let's label the neutron star quantities NS, then the acceleration of gravity on the GM surface of the start is gNS = 2 NS RNS Now we can compute this quantity or by brute force, just using the numbers and a calculator, or by using our knowledge of gEarth GM NS GM Earth 4 ⋅10 5 gNS = 2 = = gEarth ¥ 256 ⋅10 9 @ 256 ⋅1010 m /s2 !!! 2 2 RNS REarth ⋅ (12.5 ⋅10-4 ) † Q-3.2: Write the formula for the gravitational acceleration agrav at a distance R from the center of the star and calculate agrav for R=16·105·RNS . The gravitational acceleration on any body at a distance R from the neutron star is GM NS agrav = R2 for R = 16 ⋅10 5 ⋅ RNS we get GM NS GM NS 1 m agrav = = = gNS =1 2 2 2 10 R 256 ⋅10 s (16 ⋅105 ) RNS2 † Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 4 of 7 Name: _______________________________ Exercise 4 A boxcar traveling at 30 m/s approaches a string of 4 boxcars, identical to the first one, sitting stationary on the track. The boxcar collides and links with the stationary cars and the five of them move off together along the track. At any time there are no external forces acting on the boxcars. Q-4.1: What is the final speed of the five cars immediately after the collision? We need to use the conservation of momentum (no external forces). Let's call m the mass of a boxcar. pinitial = m ⋅ v initial ¸ 1 ˝ fi Dp = 0 implies v final = v initial = 6 m /s p final = 5m ⋅ v final ˛ 5 Q-4.2: What is the change in the total kinetic energy before and after the collision knowing that each cart has a 100 Kg mass. Is the collision elastic? † 1 The kinetic energy is in general KE = Mv 2 2 1 1 1 So DKE = 5mv 2final - mv 2initial = m(5 ⋅ 36 m 2 /s2 - 900 m 2 /s2 ) = 2 2 2 2 2 = 50Kg ⋅ (-720 m /s ) fi DKE = -36000 J Clearly some kinetic energy is loss so the collision was not elastic. † Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 5 of 7 Name: _______________________________ Exercise 5 A cart is riding a rollercoaster as described in the picture Ignore the friction on the track. Knowing that at the point B the cart arrives with basically zero speed, calculate Q-5.1: The speed of the cart at point A given that the altitude at A is hA=10 m The basic concept to be used in order to solve this kind of problem is the conservation of the mechanical energy 1 ME = GPE + KE = mgh + mv 2 2 The conservation of ME is correct given the lack (or negligibility) of friction (see text). The mechanical energy at A should be equal to the mechanical energy at B. At B we know that vB = 0 so there is just gravitational potential energy. So † 1 1 mghA + mv 2A = mghB fi mv 2A = mghB - mghA = mg( hB - hA ) 2 2 m m fi v 2A = 2g( hB - hA ) fi v A = 2g( hB - hA ) = 2 ⋅10 2 ⋅ 20 m = 20 s s † Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 6 of 7 Name: _______________________________ Q-5.2: The altitude of point C if the speed of the cart there is vC=10 m/s Using that v2B = 0 (cart at rest) and the conservation of the mechanical energy, we can write that at point C 1 2 1 2 1 vC2 mghC + mvC = mghB fi ghC = - vC + ghB fi hC = hB 2 2 2 g 1 100 m 2 /s2 hC = 30m = 30m - 5m = 25m 2 10 m /s2 Q-5.3: The speed of the cart at point D given that the altitude at D is hD= hA=10m Given that D has the same altitude of A the kinetic energy must be the same so v B = v A = 20 m /s † † Q-5.4: If the cart has mass 1000 Kg, what is the work that the brakes should do on the cart’s wheels in order to stop it just after point D? Note the track is even (no slope) after point D. The work needed is equal to the change in kinetic energy 1 W = DKE = mv 2D - 0 2 If the cart has mass 1000 Kg then 1 W = DKE = mv 2D - 0 = 200000 J = 2 ⋅10 5 J 2 † Physics 117: Exam I, 3/10/2003 – Page 7 of 7